Model Manufactory

There is the city of Noginsk fifty kilometers east from Moscow. The city received its modern name in 1930 in memory of the statesman and party leader of the Soviet state Viktor Pavlovich Nogin, who worked here for some time in his youth at one of the textile manufactories - Glukhovskaya. Noginsk is best known as a city with an extensive (in the best of times, now factories stopped) textile industry. The former name of the city is Bogorodsk. In 1781, by decree of Empress Catherine II, the Rogozhi station, on which, incidentally, Radishchev, Suvorov, Pushkin, Tolstoy repeatedly stopped at while traveling around Vladimirka, received the status of a city with a sonorous and beautiful name.


Bogorodsky Uyezd was the county with the largest percentage of Old Believers population throughout Russia. Perhaps due to the fact that it was easy for them to get lost in the local virgin forests, or maybe for some other reason, but it was in the villages, counties, and, of course, in Bogorodsk Old Believers gradually gathered.


Local Old Believers belonged to the priests of the Belokrinitsky hierarchy. In the county, one of the most numerous Old Believer communities was Bogorodsk-Glukhovskaya, headed by Arseniy Ivanovich Morozov. Until now, the city of Noginsk is adorned with buildings built at its expense. These buildings are examples of Russian Art Nouveau. In this style, mansions, houses for workers and employees (including wooden ones), schools, medical facilities, as well as industrial buildings were built. By the will of fate, only secular buildings, created with the money of Morozov according to projects approved by him, have survived to our days. There was a long period of "iconoclasm" in the history of our country, as a result of which a huge number of churches, both Orthodox and Old Believers, disappeared from the face of the earth. Bogorodsky temples were not a happy exception. There is only one, half destroyed, which architecture was once incomparable. The temple was also built at the expense of Arseny Morozov.


When the freedom of religion was granted to the Old Believers by the tsar’s manifest of April 17, 1905, Morozov began to work on temples with tireless energy. Only in Bogorodsk and its suburbs, he builds 4 Old Believer churches, and in the whole Bogorodsk district, thanks to his efforts, about 15 churches were rebuilt and consecrated.


Representatives of the Morozovs clan possessed good housework grasp and extraordinary industriousness. The founder of the clan - Savva Vasilievich, having started his business as a serf, having 5 rubles in his pocket in gold - a landowner's wedding gift, at the end of his life left his children a thriving factory in Orekhovo-Zuev, Bogorodsk, Tver. The Timofeeviches and Eliseeviches ruled in Orekhovo, the Abramovichi in Tver, and the Zakharovichi in Bogorodsk. The branches are named after the four sons of Savva Vasilyevich, to whom he transferred the case. Zakhar Morozov received capital and a dyeing department from the Orekhovo-Zuevsky Manufactory in Bogorodsk from his father. His name is immortalized in the name of the final station - Zakharovo - railway line, departing from the main railway Moscow-Vladimir. This branch was held by Zakhar Morozov’s grandson - David Ivanovich, Arseny Ivanovich’s brother, in 1885. In 1842, Zakhar acquired the village of Glukhovo near Bogorodsky, where he transferred his business. He opened the first among the Morozov, Bogorodsk-Glukhov mechanical spinning mills in 1844, and in 1857, when his son Ivan already owned the plant, the enterprise was transformed into a partnership of the Bogorodsk-Glukhov manufactory. It became the first commercial and industrial partnership in Central Russia. By this time, it already included a spinning mill, weaving, dyeing, bleaching, dyeing and finishing factories and 2 hand-weaving buildings, which were rebuilt and put into operation. In 1854, 465 people worked at the Glukhov manufactory, and in 1884, already eight and a half thousand. But the manufacture reached its highest peak during the years of its management Arseny Morozov, grandson of Zakhar Savvich. Under him, over 10,000 people were already working at the factory (the time of his management of the factory was from the end of the last century until the revolution).


“Do not drink, do not smoke, do not steal” - everyone received this instruction at the Morozov factory. The company of the Glukhov manufactory had its trade in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kharkov, Kiev, Odessa, Rostov-on-Don, Yekaterinburg. The board was in Moscow - on Old Square, 8 (a familiar address, isn't it?). Things were going very well at Morozov’s factories at the beginning of the century, profits, for example, in 1906 were 42%, dividends were about 8%, the rest was invested in production and the social sphere. After 1905, which passed calmly for the Morozovs (I must say that during all the years of the existence of production in Glukhov there were no noticeable strikes or unrest), the main construction began.


The invited then fashionable architect A.V. Kuznetsov to Bogorodsk, in addition to the existing ones, is building the Novotkatskaya factory of the Glukhov manufactory (1907-1908), which after the construction of one of the best in the world - both in terms of architectural design and equipment. The innovative ideas of the architect were fully embodied in it. I will mention only a few of them. The factory was a wide one-story building with concrete floors. The entire space of the ceiling was cut with light lamps of various shapes. Bright overhead lighting significantly improved visual working conditions. On the roof, between the lampposts, the whole area was covered with soil and planted with grass - it was a huge lawn, located at a decent height from the ground. A new ventilation system was applied in the building, close to a modern air conditioning system. For the first time in Russian factories light comfortable closets with individual lockers for outerwear appeared here. The solutions found by Kuznetsov become classics of Russian and then Soviet industrial architecture. The quality of construction was such that the first repairs at the enterprise were carried out only in 1967. It was at this factory that the film "The Bright Way", with Lyubov Orlova in the title role, the leading weaver, was known to the older generation.


Well-established production, stable income from the manufactory allowed Arseny Morozov to implement his ideas for improving the material, housing and spiritual conditions of both the workers of his factories and the residents of Bogorodsky district.


Here is what the author of the work “Historical, Statistical and Archaeological Description of Bogorodsk” wrote: “... At the most significant Bogorodsk-Glukhovsky factory in terms of turnover, there is a library for employees and workers who writes out all Russian magazines and newspapers and consists of more than 5000 yonds. In general, the workers of Bogorodsk and its environs are sharply distinguished by their grandeur and power, there are few drunk in the city, despite the proximity of factories, literacy is common in the city, as well as reasonable tavern entertainments. in Bogorodsk, workers have lived with families settled for a long time, while in other factories the workers are separated from their families, and this is the main evil ... In Bogorodsk, private philanthropy has developed more than anywhere else in Russia, like in Moscow. "


Until now, there are houses in Glukhov (both brick and wooden), rebuilt for workers and employees of the Glukhov manufactory. In the large four-story T-shaped barracks there were dormitories for newly arrived workers. In the barracks there was ventilation, sewage, air heating. If the worker (looking closely at him) showed his best side, then he soon received a loan at the factory and could build his own house or get a separate apartment in a house for 4 families. The negligent workers were disposed of. An example of this is Anatoly Zheleznyakov ("sailor Zheleznyak, partisan"), who was kicked out of the factory not for revolutionary agitation, but for booze and rowdy.


The employees lived in two-story wooden houses - a whole street of these attractive, cozy even externally houses has been preserved. The houses still have stoves and fireplaces. There was also a privileged street - there were houses for foreign specialists and our engineers on it. And in almost all houses, including wooden ones, there was a sewage system.


For the children of workers there was a four-year factory school, later a school. The equipment at the factory was complicated (all Morozovs at their manufactories always preferred English machine tools), qualified personnel were needed. This school could freely decorate any city, even the capital, with its architecture and the selection of teachers. It is enough to say that person, who taught church singing at the school was A.V. Sveshnikov. The building, constructed by the architect A.M. Markov, in terms of reminiscent of an airplane, was also preserved, its interior is still magnificent. Now it houses a high school.


By the beginning of World War I, a unique social and residential complex was formed in Glukhovo, which included, in addition to residential buildings, a hospital town, a pharmacy, schools and colleges, churches, a club of clerks, a library, a Glukhovsky park on the banks of the Chernogolovsky Pond, for factory workers to relax and entertain, shops and shops, as well as huge garden plantations on which various vegetables were grown. Tomatoes were bred in greenhouses here, which the locals called "kimidors" and at first did not like and did not understand their taste. Gardening was led by specialists from Moscow.


Vegetables were sold from gardens in the central part of Glukhov, where trade was organized by Arseniy Ivanovich. On the ground floor of the clerks' house a grocery store was set up - there were departments of groceries, meat, flour, gastronomy. At the baker’s shop there was a bakery. Sunflower oil was sold in it (it was supplied to the counter via special pipes). Meat was brought from the slaughterhouse. Kerosene, clay pots for cooking, and hardware were sold in a separate store. All goods in stores were sold on credit using special books. Arseny Ivanovich was very jealous of the desire of workers to buy products not in his stores. On the bridge, not far from the kindergarten shops, through which the road from Bogorodsk to Glukhovo lay, he could check the bags with the workers returning from Bogorodsk. And if he found products bought in the city, he threw them from their bags onto the road, turning them into inedible ones. I must say that Arseny Morozov was cool. But, sincerely following the order in his "diocese", he wished the workers good.


Morozov remained an ardent Old Believer until the end of his days, but he was tolerant in matters of faith and also cared for the spiritual needs of the New Believers. Under the Bogorodsk-Glukhov manufactory there was a New Believers church, and there was one under the almshouse for disabled workers and the elderly, arranged by Arseniy Ivanovich near Glukhov (village of Kuznets). The marching altar for this church was donated to Morozov by Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fedorovna. The name of Elizabeth Feodorovna was a charity that cared for the state of the city prison, which could be called a local attraction. One of the most prominent members of society was Arseny Morozov. Contemporaries said that this prison was not of a Russian, but of an American type, and found it difficult to point out another such in Russia where there would be the same cleanliness, order and human treatment of prisoners.


Not only in Bogorodsky Uyezd through the efforts of Arseny Morozov, Old Believer churches were erected and the spiritual life of zealots of the old faith was organized. Arseny Ivanovich took an active part in the Old Believer life of Moscow. He owned a pen well and collaborated in the Old Believers magazine "Church", publishing room-by-day polemic materials in defense of the old faith, covering the affairs of the Bogorodsk Old Believer community, of which he was honorary chairman, sometimes placing his correspondence with officials (including ministers and himself Prime Minister P.A. Stolypin) on issues affecting the interests of the Old Believers. Morozov's travel notes on trips around Europe are also curious. They characterize him as an observant person and having an opinion about everything. Of the sights he was most interested in the temples of God.


After the revolution, everything was taken away from Arseny Morozov. "God gave - God took it," he said to the grieving relatives. In his heart, he regarded the Bolshevik regime as a product of the Antichrist. Arseny Ivanovich lived 82 years. He died in 1932. He was buried at the Rogozhsky cemetery. A huge wild stone with a surname and dates of birth and death was placed over the grave. After some time, the stone disappeared and was soon discovered at the Novodevichy cemetery on the grave of the trainer Vladimir Durov. Vandals stole a granite block, carved a figure of Durov from it and installed it in a new place. After the theft of the stone, the grave of Arseny Morozov was wiped off the face of the earth.